Raymond Murphy english grammar in use

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picky - de Knulp_2 la: 28/05/2009 18:13:46
(la: Bibliotecile digitale)
English Grammar in Use.
scrisa de... nu stiu, un tip. Raymond Murphy.

Eu avand deja cumparata, comandata de peste tari si un canal, Advanced Grammar in Use.

Foarte buna cartea pentru studiul limbii engleze. Serios!
#444694 (raspuns la: #444692) comenteaza . modifica . semnaleaza adminului
. - de ikoflexer la: 29/06/2004 19:43:36
(la: Ozzy vs LMC)
de cand se traduce "jew" prin "jidan"(termen insultator)?

N-am intentionat sa jignesc pe nimeni si nu stiam ca "jidan" e un termen insultator; daca e imi cer scuze. Cum s-ar traduce atunci? --- ca n-am un dictionar englez-roman la indemina.

Dupa cite stiu eu: hebrew = evreu
israeli = israelian
jew = ? (eu credeam jidan---corectati-ma)
jewish = de religie ?

Citez mai jos pentru cei ce au timp sa citeasca din Oxford English Dictionary:

oed jew | more
Jew (d3(j)u:), sb. Forms: Sing. 3 Gyu, 4 Giu, Gyw, Iu, Iuu, Iuw(e, Ieu, Ieuu,
Ieu3, 4-5 Iwe, 4 (6 Sc.) Iow, 4-7 Iewe, 5 Ieue, 5-6 Iue, (Ive), 4-7 Iew, 7-
Jew. Plur. 2 Giwis, 3 Giws, Gius, Gyu(e)s, 3-4 Gywes, Giwes, Geus, 4 Iuu(e)s,
Iuwis, Iow(e)s, Ioues, Iewis, -ys, -us, 4-5 Iuwes, 4-6 Iues, 4-7 Iewes, 5
Iuys, 6 Sc. Iowis, Iouis, 4-7 Iews, 7- Jews; beta. 4 Iuen. [ME. a. OFr. giu,
gyu, giue, earlier juieu, juiu, jueu:-L. iudaeum (nom. -us) Jew (cf. Fr. dieu,
ebreu:-L. deum. hebraeum); in later Fr. juif, fem. juive. L. iudaeus was a.
Gr. iota-omicron-upsilon-delta-alpha-iota--omicron-sigma-, f. Aramaic y'hudai,
corresp. to Heb. y'hudi Jew, f. y'hudah Judah, name of a Hebrew patriarch and
the tribe descended from him. (The OE. equivalent was Iudeas Jews, Early ME.
Iudeow, Iudew: see JUDEW.)]
1 a A person of Hebrew descent; one whose religion is Judaism; an Israelite.
Orig. a Hebrew of the kingdom of Judah, as opposed to those of the ten tribes
of Israel; later, any Israelite who adhered to the worship of Jehovah as
conducted at Jerusalem. Applied comparatively rarely to the ancient nation
before the exile (cf. HEBREW sb. 1), but the commonest name for contemporary
or modern representatives of this group, now spread throughout the world. The
word `Jew' is also applied to groups, e.g. the Falashas in Ethiopia, not
ethnically related to persons of the main European groups, the Ashkenazim and
the Sephardim.
C. 1275 Passion our Lord 351 in O.E. Misc. 47 Pilates hym onswerede, am ich
Gyv penne? A. 1300 Cursor M. 3944 (Cott.) O sinnu etes neuer Iuu [v.rr. ieuu,
iew]. A. 1300 Cursor M. 11072 (Cott.) It halus bath Iu and sarzine. C. 1310 in
Wright Lyric P. (Percy Soc.) 100 Ich holde me vilore then a Gyw [rimes bowe,
trowe, now]. C. 1340 Cursor M. 4532 (Trin.) Therynne a iewes childe we fonde.
C. 1340 Cursor M. 18579 (Trin.) And namely leue herof no iwe For al pus dud
pei wip ihesu. 1387 TREVISA Higden (Rolls) VI. 385 Charles Grossus was
i-poysoned of a Iewe [v.r. Iuw]. A. 1400 Pistill of Susan 2 That was a Ieu3
ientil, and Ioachin he hiht. C. 1440 Promp. Parv. 266/2 Ive, judeus. 1530
PALSGR. 235/1 Jue a man of jurye, jvif. 1572 Satir. Poems Reform. xxxi. 173
Mair nor in Jurie dois the Jow. 1596 SHAKS. Merch. V. III. i. 61 What is the
reason? I am a Iewe; Hath not a Iew eyes? 1615 G. SANDYS Trav. 52 His mother a
Iew both by birth and religion. 1775 SHERIDAN Rivals II. i, She shall have a
skin like a mummy, and the beard of a Jew. 1820 BYRON Blues I. 77 You forget
Lady Lilac's as rich as a Jew.1940 AUDEN Another Time 116 He [sc. Sigmund
Freud] Was taken away from his old interest To go back to the earth in London,
An important Jew who died in exile. 1956 I. MURDOCH Flight from Enchanter ix.
126 `Of course, you realize that I could rescue you with my little finger,'
said Mrs Wingfield. `I'm as rich as a Jew!' 1970 R. D. ABRAHAMS Positively
Black iii. 76 The Englishman is arrogant and overbearing, the American is a
check-writing millionaire who doesn't mind the cost, the Jew tries to push
down the entry price into heaven. 1970 Times 28 Jan. 10/4 At the heart of the
matter lies the rabbinical definition of a Jew: a person born of a Jewish
mother, or a person who has converted to Judaism according to rabbinical law.
1974 J. R. BAKER Race xiv. 234 From the traditional religious point of view, a
Jew was a person born of a Jewish mother, but this formula suffers from the
defect that the defined word is included in adjectival form in the definition.
The same flaw occurs in part of the new definition enacted by the Israeli
Parliament in..1970, according to which a person is a Jew if he or she is the
offspring of a Jewish mother or has been converted to the Jewish faith by the
Orthodox Rabbinate or by the Rabbis of the Jewish Reform Movement or by the
Rabbis of the Jewish Conservative Movement.
plural. C. 1175 Lamb. Hom. 9 Alswa hefden pe giwis heore sinagoge. C. 1250
Old Kent. Serm. in O.E. Misc. 26 Hi..askede wer was se king of gyus pet was
i-bore. C. 1250 Old Kent. Serm. in O.E. Misc., 26 King of geus. A. 1300
Cursor M. 142 O pe Iuus [v.rr. iewes] and moyses. A. 1300 Cursor M. 19129
(Gott.) Thar badd pai iuen suld paim 3eme. A. 1340 HAMPOLE Psalter xxvii. 5
The iowes sloghe crist. 1387 TREVISA Higden (Rolls) VIII. 53 That he schulde
doo pe Iewes [v.r. Iuwes] out of Engelond. 1482 CAXTON Trevisa's Higden
(Rolls) IV. 369 The Iuwes accused Pilatus to Tiberius. 1533 GAU Richt Vay 30
Ve prech Iesu Christ crucifeit, sclander to the Iowis and folie to the
gentils. 1548-9 (Mar.) Bk. Comm. Prayer (Coll. Good Friday), Haue mercy upon
all Iewes, Turkes, Infidels, and heretikes. 1611 BIBLE 2 Kings xvi. 6 At that
time Rezin king of Syria..draue the Iews from Elath. 1619 SANDERSON Twelve
Serm. (1632) 2 In Rome there lived in the Apostles times many Iewes. 1710 etc.
[see FALASHA]. 1776 GIBBON Decl. & F. xv, The same..abhorrence for idolatry
which had distinguished the Jews from the other nations of the ancient world.
1968 L. ROSTEN Joys of Yiddish 142 Relentless persecution of Jews, century
after century, in nation after nation, left a legacy of bitter sayings: `Dos
ken nor a goy.' (`That, only a goy is capable of doing'). 1971 B. MALAMUD
Tenants 50 The Jews got to keep us bloods stayin weak. 1974 J. R. BAKER Race
xiv. 232 In various parts of the world today there are communities that
practise the Jewish faith in one form or another, but are ethnically distinct
from the Jews of Europe and North America.
gen. plur. A. 1225 Ancr. R. 394 Uorto acwiten ut his leofmon of Giwene
honden. A. 1225 Juliana 62 Ant poledest pinen ant passiun purh giwes read on
rode. A. 1300 Cursor M. 4532 (Cott.) Thar in a Iuen child [Trin. iewes childe]
we fand. C. 1300 Cursor M. 19289 (Edin.) The iuwin folc felune. C. 1300Cursor
M. 21696 (Edin.) Mang pe Iuwis lede. C. 1350 Childh. Jesus 616 (Matz.) Giwene
children feole..Him siweden. C. 1449 PECOCK Repr. III. iii. 291 If Cristen
preestis weren Iewen preestis. 1653 GREAVES Seraglio 150 In the Kings
Seraglio, the Sultana's are permitted to employ divers Jewes-women about their
ordinary occasions.
b Jew's eye: proverbial expression for something valued highly.
1592 G. HARVEY Pierce's Super. 85 A souerain Rule, as deare as a Iewes eye.
1596 SHAKS. Merch. V. II. v. 43 There will come a Christian by, Will be worth
a Iewes eye. 1833 MARRYAT P. Simple ii, Although the journey..would cost twice
the value of a gold seal, yet, that in the end it might be worth a Jew's eye.
1844 WILLIS Lady Jane I. 212 From dome to floor, Hung pictures..Each `worth a
Jew's eye'.
c Black Jew (see quot. 1967); also = FALASHA.
1807 C. BUCHANAN Jrnl. 4 Feb. in Christian Res. in Asia (1811) 192 The
resident Jews are divided into two classes, called the Jerusalem or White
Jews; and the Ancient or Black Jews. The White Jews reside at this place [sc.
Cochin]. The Black Jews have also a Synagogue here; but the great body of
that tribe inhabit towns in the interior of the province. A. 1817 T. DWIGHT
Trav. New-Eng. (1823) III. 174 The black Jews in Hindostan. 1822 Imperial Mag.
IV. 358 A copy of the Hebrew Pentateuch..found in one of the Black Jews'
Synagogues, at Cochin. 1843 J. C. MAITLAND Lett. from Madras xviii. 178, I
told him about the first preachers, the Black Jews, the Syrian Christians, &c.
1892 G. M. RAE Syrian Church in India x. 150 These black Jews are converts to
the faith from among the people of the land. 1907 I. ZANGWILL Ghetto Comedies
155 The black Jews..surrounded by all those millions of Hindoos. 1930 H.
NORDEN Africa's Last Empire 185 The black Jews among whom he works. 1964 [see
FALASHA]. 1967 D. T. KAUFFMAN Dict. Relig. Terms 77/1 Black Jews, in India,
term applied to brown-skinned Jews to distinguish them from a group known as
`White Jews'. Sometimes used also for Negro Jewish groups. 1974 J. R. BAKER
Race xiv. 232 The Falasha or `black Jews' of Ethiopia are members of the
Aethiopid subrace, a hybrid taxon.
d A ship's tailor. Hence also jewing vbl. sb. and ppl. a. Naut. slang.
1916 Chambers's Jrnl. May 278/2 They [sc. ships' tailors] were still known as
`jews'. 1916 Chambers's Jrnl., May 278/2 The term `jewing', as sewing is
still called. 1945 TACKLINE Holiday Sailor x. 102 There was the
`Jewing-bloke', who undertook tailoring repairs. 1945 TACKLINE Holiday Sailor,
x. 102 The `Jewing-bloke' had a rather ancient Singer sewing machine, bought
when ashore at Alexandria in his pocket. 1946 J. IRVING Royal
Navalese 100 A sailor-tailor is known as a `Jew'. 1962 GRANVILLE Dict.
Sailors' Slang 66/1 Jewing firm, ship's tailoring `firm' run by one or more
ratings who repair and make clothing.
2 a transf. and offensive. As a name of opprobrium: spec. applied to a
grasping or extortionate person (whether Jewish or not) who drives hard
In medieval England, Jews, though engaged in many pursuits, were particularly
familiar as money-lenders, their activities being publicly regulated for them
by the Crown, whose proteges they were. In private, Christians also practised
money-lending, though forbidden to do so by Canon Law. Thus the name of Jew
came to be associated in the popular mind with usury and any extortionate
practices that might be supposed to accompany it, and gained an opprobrious
1606 Sir G. Goosecappe V. i. in Bullen O. Pl. III. 77 If the sunne of thy
beauty doe not white me like a shippards holland, I am a Iewe to my Creator.
1700 BP. PATRICK Comm. Deut. xxviii. 37 Better we cannot express the most
cut-throat dealing, than thus, You use me like a Jew. 1830 COLERIDGE Table-t.
16 May, Jacob is a regular Jew, and practises all sorts of tricks and wiles.
1844 D. KING Ruling Eldership II. i, It is undesirable..that he pass in the
commercial circle for what is there termed a Jew.1846 Swell's Night Guide
123/1 Jew, an overreaching fellow. C. 1861 E. DICKINSON Poems (1955) I. 160
'Twould be `a Bargain' for a Jew! Say-may I have it-Sir? 1906 J. M. SYNGE
Lett. to Molly (1971) 31 What have I done that you should write to me as if I
was a dunning Jew? 1920 T. S. ELIOT Ara Vos Prec 14 The jew is underneath the
lot. Money in furs. 1931 T. R. G. LYELL Slang 428 Why waste your time asking
him for a subscription? He's a perfect Jew where money's concerned. 1944
Britannica Bk. of Year 693 In March 1943 there were tirades from Bangkok radio
against the `Jews of Siam' (probably Chinese), who were accused of
profiteering. 1952 G. BONE Came to Oxf. xi. 34 There is a curious fallacy,
rather wide-spread, that a borrower of money is an innocent and hapless
person, while a lender is a shark, a harpy, a `Jew'. 1964 H. BROTZ Black Jews
of Harlem iii. 54 Occasionally the Black Jews forget they are Jews when
complaining about the fact that `the Jews' own all or most of Harlem!
b A pedlar.
In this use not depreciatory.
1803 G. COLMAN John Bull III. ii. 32 Here is two poets, and a poll-parrot,
the best image the Jew had over his head, over the mantle-piece. 1963 E.
MCBAIN Ten Plus One (1964) iv. 42 There was a guy who used to come around to
the door selling stuff, and my mother called him `The Jew'... For her, `Jew'
was synonymous with pedlar. 1970 J. H. GRAY Boy from Winnipeg 43 For us,
however, `Jew' was just another generic word that often included the peddlers
who were Greek or Italian. When we scrounged bottles it was to sell to `the
Jew', who was anybody that came along buying junk.
3 attrib. and Comb. a attrib. or as adj. That is a Jew, Jewish, as Jew boy,
butcher, girl, man, pedlar, physician, trooper (such expressions now mainly in
offensive use but not originally opprobrious); of or relating to Jews, as Jew
bill, hatred, toll. b objective, similative, etc., as Jew-drowning, -hater,
Jew-dear, adj.; Jew-like adj. and adv., -looking adj.
1765 BLACKSTONE Comm. I. x. (1793) 375 Very high debates about the time of
the famous Jew-bill; which enables all Jews to prefer bills of naturalization
in parliament, without receiving the sacrament.
1796 P. COLQUHOUN Treat. Police of Metropolis (ed. 3) vi. 125 Jew Boys..go
out every morning loaded with counterfeit Copper, which they exchange for bad
Silver, to be afterwards coloured anew, and again put into circulation. 1817
M. EDGEWORTH Harrington iii. 45 Mowbray easily engaged me to join him against
the Jew boy; and a zealous partizan against Jacob I became. 1873 TROLLOPE
Eustace Diamonds II. liii. 361 You used to be very wicked, and say he was once
a Jew-boy in the streets. 1929 D. H. LAWRENCE Let. 10 Oct. (1962) II. 1208, I
do hate John's Jewish nasal sort of style-so uglily moral... Spring doesn't
only come for the moral Jew-boys-for them perhaps least. 1948 J. BALDWIN in
Commentary Oct. 334/2 Jules Weissman, a Jewboy, had got the room for me. 1954
Jewboy [see IKEY sb. and a.]. 1959 N. MAILER Advts. for Myself (1961) 50
Jewboy, blond Jewboy Wexler perched by the cellar window, tackling Japs with
machine-gun bullets. 1968 Daily Mail 9 Feb. 3/3 Angry viewers rang the BBC
last night to complain about an `anti-Semitic' remark on the TV programme
Softly, Softly. In last night's episode..the detective tells the man: `You
always were a great one for putting things in your wife's name, Bob, just like
a Jewboy heading for bankruptcy.' 1972 Observer 7 May, Mrs Lane Fox dismisses
what she calls the country set, who call their children `the brats', talk
about `thrashing them into shape', support Enoch Powell and still refer to
`jew boys'. 1974 New Society 3 Jan. 11/2 A car's desirability also creates the
opposite reaction, in that envy is easily turned to resentment and aggression
towards, for instance, the `jewboy', the `poser', the `toffee nose' and the
`business classes' who sport expensive and powerful cars.
1849 W. S. MAYO Kaloolah (1887) p. viii, Oil, garlic, salt fish, and Jew
1613 PURCHAS Pilgrimage (1614) 213 Thus you see the Iew-butcher had need be
no botcher, but halfe a Physitian in Anatomizing.
1755 J. SHEBBEARE Lydia (1769) I. 274 [He] must have had this jew-craft
among his reasons for endeavouring to naturalize the Jews.
1899 A. WHITE Modern Jew 122 There are many instances of the drollery of
*Jew-drowning in the annals of monkish historians.
1796 E. WYNNE Diary 11 Dec. (1937) II. ix. 139 Before having ever seen us she
declared that we were all excepting the youngest, like little crows and Jew
girls. 1930 E. POUND XXX Cantos x. 45 Wives, jew-girls, nuns. 1971 B. MALAMUD
Tenants 50 Jewgirls are the best whores.
1899 Westm. Gaz. 18 Sept. 2/2 The nature of the wounds roused amongst the
*Jew-haters the old story of the blood sacrifice.
1898 Nat. Rev. Aug. 807 Outside Russia, Jew hatred is a matter with which
Governments have no direct concern.
1808 COBBETT Pol. Reg. XIII. 172 Through the means of a jew-like commerce
with the revolted slaves.
1905 JOYCE Let. 29 Oct. (1966) II. 127 For a Jewman it's better than having
to bathe. 1922 JOYCE Ulysses 336 I'll brain that bloody jewman for using the
holy name. 1938 W. B. YEATS John Kinsella's Lament in London Mercury Dec. 114
Though stiff to strike a bargain Like an old Jew man.
1771 SMOLLETT Humph. Cl. 20 Apr. Let ii, I was cheapening a pair of
spectacles with a Jew-pedlar.
1731 Gent. Mag. I. 403 Dr. Bass, a noted Jew Physician in St. Mary Axe.
A. 1680 BUTLER Rem. (1759) II. 84 And crucify his Saviour worse Than those
*Jew-Troopers, that threw out, When they were raffling for his coat.
c Special Combs.: Jew-bail, insufficient bail, `straw-bail'; 'Jew-baiting sb.
= Ger. Judenhetze, systematic harrying or persecution of Jews; so Jew-bait v.
nonce-wd., Jew-baiter, Jew-baiting a.; Jew-bush, a euphorbiaceous plant of the
genus Pedilanthus; Jew-cart (see quot.); Jew-lizard, a large Australian
lizard, Amphibolurus barbatus; Jew plum = OTAHEITE APPLE; Jew Tongo, a
language spoken among Bush Negroes in Surinam, possessing a structure largely
derived from West African languages and a vocabulary largely derived from
1785 GROSE Dict. Vulg. T., Jew Bail. 1797 MARY ROBINSON Walsingham IV. 283
He..did the deep ones with Jew-bail, till they were up to the trick.
1892 Sat. Rev. 18 June 700/2 [He] is always going about Jew-baiting and to
*Jew-bait with pen or sword.
1883 Pall Mall G. 19 Nov. 3/1 [They] are now in full possession of the case
of the German jew-baiters against the Jews. 1907 I. ZANGWILL Ghetto Comedies
85 She's honest... She won't fall back on the old Jew-baiter. 1945 W. S.
CHURCHILL Victory (1946) 145 Julius Streicher, most notorious of Jew-baiters,
was captured by the Americans. 1960 C. DAY LEWIS Buried Day vi. 116 The same
herd instinct that produces Teddy Boys, Jew-baiters and Ku-Klux-Klansmen. 1974
G. MITCHELL Javelin for Jonah xi. 133 Benjy was unlucky enough to fall foul at
school of a ring of young Jew-baiters.
1883 Evening Post (N.Y.) 21 Apr., The Jew-baiting in Germany; the bloody
persecutions in Russia. 1898 Nat. Review Aug. 807 In the Empire of the
Tsar..Jew-baiting is a matter of high State policy. 1922 JOYCE Ulysses 202
Shylock chimes with the jewbaiting that followed the hanging. 1939 Ann. Reg.
1938 203 The brutalities began on April 23, and it was clear that the scheme
of Jew-baiting had been worked out in readiness for the `Anschluss'. 1969 J.
MANDER Static Soc. iii. 99 The American, however ugly, is no Jew-baiting
1830 LINDLEY Nat. Syst. Bot. 105 The Jew Bush, or Milk plant.
1840 MARRYAT Poor Jack xviii, Then we have what we call Jew Carts, always
ready to take [stolen] goods inland, where they will not be looked after.
1847 LEICHHARDT Jrnl. iii. 89 A small Chlamydophorus (*Jew lizard of the
Hunter [River]) was also seen. A. 1884 J. SERVICE Thir Notandums (1890) 205
From beneath a log the green Jew-lizard, or the iguana peeps.
1913 W. HARRIS Notes Fruit & Veg. in Jamaica 18 The Jew Plum..was
introduced to Jamaica in 1782 and again in 1792. 1920 W. POPENOE Man. Tropical
& Subtropical Fruits iv. 156 Jew-plum is another name for the ambarelle, used
in Jamaica. 1971 Caribbean Q. XVII. II. 14 Different name, same
referent..golden apple/Jew plum/pomme-citerre.
1933 L. BLOOMFIELD Lang. xxvi. 474 Two creolized forms of English are spoken
in Suriname (Dutch Guiana). One of these.., more divergent from ordinary
types of English, is known as Jew-Tongo. 1968 W. J. SAMARIN in J. A. Fishman
Readings Sociol. of Lang. 666 Amerindian pidgins... Saramakan (Jew Tongo,
d Genitival Combs.: Jews' apple, a name for the Egg-plant or its fruit; Jews'
frankincense, a plant of the genus Styrax, or the resin obtained from it
(storax or benzoin); Jews' houses, name given to the remains of ancient
tin-smelting furnaces in Cornwall; Jew's letter, a text inscribed in Hebrew
upon a phylactery, regarded as the outward symbol or badge of a Jew; Jews'
lime, a synonym of Jews' slime (see below); Jews' mallow, a name for Corchorus
olitorius (N.O. Tiliaceae), one of the plants from which the fibre called jute
is obtained, used as a pot-herb in Egypt, Syria, and other countries; Jews'
money, a popular name for ancient Roman coins found in some parts of England;
Jews' myrtle, a name for Butcher's Broom, and for a variety of the common
Myrtle; Jews' pitch, Jews' slime, names for asphalt or bitumen (cf. Gen. xi.
3); Jews' thorn = Christ's thorn (see CHRIST 5); Jews' tin, name for lumps of
tin found in ancient smelting-furnaces (Jews' houses) in Cornwall.
1884 MILLER Plant-n., Solanum esculentum, Jew's-Apple, Mad-Apple... S.
Melongena,..Egg-plant, Jew's-Apple.
1760 J. LEE Introd. Bot. App. 315 Jew's Frankincense, Styrax.
1851 Illustr. Catal. Gt. Exhib. 162 In the reign of King John, the mines
[were] principally in the hands of the Jews..remains of furnaces, called
*Jews' houses, have been discovered, and small blocks of tin, known as Jews'
tin, have..been found in the mining localities.
1589 R. HARVEY Pl. Perc. (1860) 32 Iewes letter scrible scrable ouer the
Copurtenaunce of a mans countenaunce. 1598 FLORIO Worlde of Wordes To Rdr. A
vj, A fouler blot then a Iewes the foreheads of Caelius and Curio.
1731-3 MILLER Gard. Dict. s.v. Corchorus, Jews Mallow, ..sown in great
Plenty about Aleppo as a Pot-herb, the Jews boiling the Leaves of this Plant
to eat with their Meat. 1887 MOLONEY Forestry W. Afr. 289 `Jews' Mallow' or
`Jute' (Corchorus olitorius, L.)-Annual. This is one of the species that
affords the well-known fibre of commerce called `Jute'.
1577 HARRISON England II. xxiv. (1877) I. 360 Some peeces or other are dailie
taken vp, which they call Borow pence, Dwarfs monie..*Iewes monie, and by
other foolish names not woorthie to be remembred.
1856 N. & Q. Ser. II. I. 432/2 In some parts of Kent it [Ruscus aculeatus] is
called `*Jews' Myrtle'; and it is the popular belief, that the crown of
thorns..was composed of its branches.
1756 P. BROWNE Jamaica 40 Asphaltum, Jew's pitch. 1816 TINGRY Varnisher's
Guide (ed. 2) 1 Asphaltum..issues in a liquid form from the bottom of the lake
Asphaltis in Judaea; and hence the name of Jew's pitch.
1607 TOPSELL Four-f. Beasts 188 Iewes lime drunk in water..prescribed for a
remedy of this euill. 1639 HORN & ROB. Gate Lang. Unl. x. Sect.104 Salt-peter,
brimstone, Jew's slime, patrol, bole-armoniak,..are called mineral juyces.
1597 GERARDE Herbal Index, Iewes thorne, that is Christs thorne. III. xxvi.
1153 This shrubbie thorne Paliurus was the thorne wherewith they crowned our
Sauiour Christ.
1851 Jews' tin [see Jews' house].

Jew, jew, v. colloq. [f. JEW sb. (sense 2).] trans. To cheat or overreach, in
the way attributed to Jewish traders or usurers. Also, to drive a hard
bargain, and intr., to haggle. Phr. to jew down, to beat down in price; also
transf. Hence 'Jewing vbl. sb.
These uses are now considered to be offensive.
1824 C. HARDING Diary 29 Apr. in Sketch (1929) 75 He is a country clergyman;
and, from his Jewing disposition, I should judge he had more taste in tithes
than pictures. 1825 Constitutional Adv. (Frankfort, Kentucky) 15 Dec. 3/1 We
hope, for the honour and character of the state, that neither the legislature
nor the people, will Jew the items of expence. 1833 L. DOW Dealings of God
(1849) 189 If they [sc. the Jews] will Jew people, they cannot flourish among
Yankees, who are said to `outjew' them in trading. A. 1845 BARHAM Ingol. Leg.,
Bro. Birchington lxv, Is it that way you'd Jew one? 1847 W. IRVING Let. 30
Apr. in Life & Lett. (1864) IV. 19 Some mode of screwing and jewing the world
out of more interest than one's money is entitled to. 1848 W. BAGLEY Let. 14
Mar. in N. E. Eliason Tarheel Talk (1956) 279, I Jewed old Galloway down to
1.50 for ploughs. 1851 H. MAYHEW London Labour I. 368/1 Some of the ladies in
the squares..sets to work Jewing away as hard as they can, pricing up their
own things, and downcrying yourn. 1854 D. G. ROSSETTI in Rossetti Ruskin,
Rossetti, etc. (1899) 15 But as to his doings And jawings and jewings, William
brought me the news. 1870 Congress. Globe 7 July 5340/1 This bill supposes
that ready to commence jewing down the pay of its General. 1872
Chicago Tribune 14 Oct. 8/2 The prices [for lodging] asked vary-the lodger
being generally asked as much as it is thought he will give. If he jews, he
will get it for comparatively little. 1883 G. M HOPKINS Let. 6 Dec. (1938) 195
You will I know say..that Jew is a reproach because the Jews have corrupted
their race and nature, so that it is their vices and their free acts we
stigmatise when we call cheating `jewing'-and that you mean that Disraeli in
1871 overreached and jewed his constituents. 1891 Daily News 2 Nov. 7/3 He'd
take care he didn't `Jew' him again.1897 [see HIGHLAND a. 2 b]. 1908 Dialect
Notes III. 324 Jew, to beat down the price. `I tried to jew him, but he
wouldn't jew.' 1926 Market Growers Jrnl. 1 July 3, I make my retail prices
about half way between grocery store wholesale and retail prices, and do not
stand for any `jewing' down. 1937 Scribner's Mag. Apr. 25 Thought we might get
the divorce a little under fifty dollars. Maybe we might jew the young man
down. 1939 A. POWELL What's become of Waring v. 140 Then we can meet again and
jew each other down. 1946 W. G. HAMMOND Remembrance of Amherst 121 Both here and at the mountain top we were unmercifully jewed for all the refreshments.
1947 L. Z. HOBSON Gentleman's Agreement i. 9 Now she was describing the large
new house she and Dick wanted to buy. `Did you close the sale on the old
place?' Mrs. Green asked. `Not yet. That cheap Pat Curran keeps trying to
Jew us down.' 1968 L. ROSTEN Joys of Yiddish 142 Just as some Gentiles use
`Jew' as a contemptuous synonym for too-shrewd, sly bargaining (`He tried to
Jew the price down,' is about as unappetizing an idiom as I know), so some
Jews use goy in a pejorative sense. 1970 R. LOWELL Notebk. 69 This embankment,
jewed-No, yankeed-by the highways down to a grassy lip. 1971 R. THOMAS Backup
Men xxi. 184, I say how much and he says this much and I say it's not enough
so we jew around with each other until we make a price. 1972 Harper's Mag. May
83 Jew the fruitman down for his last Christmas tree. 1972 New Society 11 May
301/1, I got jewed down..over the cheap offer.

#16999 (raspuns la: #16994) comenteaza . modifica . semnaleaza adminului
"sufletul o fi nemuritor si vesnic(ceea ce e un pleonasm)"athos, - de DESTIN la: 15/01/2005 18:40:39

Daca tu numesti pleonasm...unde incadrezi mai precis acasta idee?

PLEONASM [16c: from Latin pleonasmus, Greek Pleonasmós ('more-ness') excess, redundancy].
A traditional term for the use of more words than necessary, either for effect, or more usually as a fault of style, and any instance of that use, as in: Could you repeat that again? rather than Could you say that again? or Could you repeat that?; They both got one each rather than

They both got one or They got one each; That's a more superior product (superior already denotes 'more'); It's a really new innovation (an innovation is already new).
Some common pleonasms attract little comment, such as free gift (gifts are by definition free) and plans for the future (plans cannot be about the present or past).
Many famous writers have been pleonastic, including Shakespeare's double superlative 'The most unkindest cut of all' (Julius Caesar).


1992 The Oxford Companion to the English Language.

Cu bine,

Cine se teme de suferi de teama.
#33499 (raspuns la: #33471) comenteaza . modifica . semnaleaza adminului
1 aprilie marca tsunami? - de Dinu Lazar la: 22/03/2005 21:16:27
(la: O conversatie cu DINU LAZAR, fotograf)
Mie nu imi suna bine chestia asta:

Dear Friends,
I am Gaurav Dhwaj Khadka from Kathmandu, Nepal and I am 22 years old guy. I am student and I am doing my BA in English, Sociology and Anthropology. I am also learning photography but as my first work, I got the job at a local newspaper to shot photo for them and I was sent to take photographs of Andaman and NICO bar islands in India. But it was that I was also hit by the tsunami and I lost my camera and a good friend that help me in all my troubles and problems. I was also injured by that nightmare and have a pierce a nail in my right hand over an elbow, but I was a lucky one that I survive but I feel myself guilty because my friend did not want to go over there but I presser him to go with me. Because of me he lost his life, so I feel that I will never touch the camera and never take any photo in my life but back in home in Nepal. I find a note book of my lost friend in my room that was filled with his word about me and he wanted to me be a famous photographer and film makers. He was an orphan so my mom treats him as her own son so he feels that I was a brother to him, so he wanted me to be a good and famous photographer of Nepal. I did not even get the body of my brother, now I am quite well but as I uplift any heavy things with my right hand it hurt like hell. By time pass physical wound will heal but the wound that I got on my heart never heals. So I thought to start over again my friend dreams. So I have to start from nothing because I have lost my all camera. So I beg you to send me any SLR camera as donations or I will pay you back but only as installments of 100 US$ each installment. I was using Nikon FM 10 with 28-80-2.8 lens. It is best for me if you can send me Nikon FM10 w/35-70mm lens Or 500 US$. I will pay you back I promise you, so please do help me. You can also send me any other books or note books about photography and other cameras that you do not use. It will be very helpful for me, the world is changing a lot with digital camera and I love to get one, if any body have one that you do not use that or you get new one than please do send me that too with its all manual and soft wear for that I will pay you back or as donations.
#40380 (raspuns la: #40314) comenteaza . modifica . semnaleaza adminului
Unul care sa ne satisfaca pe toti! (comentariu general) - de Georges Valch la: 09/05/2005 17:53:37
(la: Va place Opera?)
Comentariu de Georges Valch
PROUDFRECKLED : M-am dezobisnuit prietene sa masor dependenta mea de un anumit lucru, prin cantitate. Altfel, judecand uneori dupa bucuria din jur, as fi uneori tentat sa ma cred fericit. In ce priveste cultura… Opera este cu adevarat o arta. Una pe care eu ca profan nu stiu cu ce simt sa o percep. Dar in afara de ea, oamenii incep sa numeasca arta o sumedie de alte lucruri, care n-au legatura cu asta.
Honey in the Sunshine : I will try a plate English here, because how you have allready seen, if i use Romanian, I could make mistakes. So, I’ve never said that culture-people doesn’t need to like the Opera. By contrary: The Opera it’s a great art, and if i feel some shame inside it’s because I can’t get that feeling that you, and the others like you have, and feeling touched by this art. About the others shames of people… Maybe i will make a conference in a day 4 this.
muma padurii : Hei(:)),tichar! liv za kids alaun! Mereu ma repet. Dar de ce nu pot trai la fel cu voi o emotie legata de opera? De ce nu pot sa zic: hfygljpojftyikikuiyi;okopkjylkyhoiytjoiyjityjty iar voi sa intelegeti imediat? Si de ce, mai rau, sa zic asa si voi sa pricepeti : yuguygiuoiuytdoijoiiu ?
Intruder : AIDA’de! Bah, Bacu asta era Dem Radulescu shi avea el un sicret da-l aruncara comunistii la parnaie! Pai normal, fratzie cah le-avea omu cu fugile: daca alerga gaborii dupe iel? Mai traitziar, noi estem intelectualy cu tontzii, care kil da oja mai hare cocoshei ca noi la portofel? Io am platit un poiet da mi-a scris toate forumili astea… shal dracu nu mananka nici cat un pekinez. Hauzi? Da ia zi cand hai fost la Opera, atzi rasbyt prin parku ala? Ca cika shade bulangii, pa toate ariile alea, shi le-a cazut chilotii-n vine da imotzie! Da barosane orcand eshti asteptat la o babardoasa pa cu mine si cu aialantzii care iai pomenit. Emoticoanili aci cika tre sa le faci dan depshte pa tastatura da tot nu ie ca alea originalily. Iarta-ma cacafeaua nu a fost asa bine hiarta si avea gust the nechezol. Da face astia o iconomie da ma spart. Bafto Delo Intrudare, mai da paci ordacateori nu esti la butik si vrei sa imparti cu cineva un sentiment, care din punct de vedere preponderent, conditional si madagascar… (hai ca plek breh ca intra poietu peste mine… si nu mi-am asigurat spatilu dalok, hauzi?).
Honey in the Sunshine (again) : francofil, zoofil, pedofil sunt subtilitati pe care greu mi le insusesc… Da ce zise fratilu nostru zau ca pricepui. Ideea e ca din nimic nu fac un complex, si ma lasa rece ce asculta fiecare. Uite, as putea sa bag mana’n foc ca tu asculti Prodigy.
scuzele pentru ortografie nu-s destule - de Dan Manoliu la: 23/06/2005 21:42:41
(la: "Ce bine e sa fi desptept si in acelasi timp si roman")
? 1827 - Petrache Poenaru, membru al Academiei Romane si unul dintre organizatorii învatamântului national inventeaza predecesorul stiloului modern: ?condei portaret, fara sfârsit, alimentându?se singur cu cerneala?
Homer had a long lasting writing pen made of reed.
Da Vinci drew improvements ..

? 1858 - Bucuresti - primul oras din lume iluminat cu petrol si prima rafinare a petrolului.
Romans had full streets in Rome lighted with torches and with heated sidewalks so that Roman ladies feet do not freeze …
Baltimore in 1816 was the first city to light its streets with gas. ...
Soon much of America, as well as other countries were lighted by gas
First oil refining was done in Ploiesti (not Bucuresti) by Enhlish engineers 1n 1856 … at the time when America found its first oil field … We were ahead here!!!

? 1880 - Dumitru Vasescu - construieste automobilul cu motor cu aburi.
In 1769, the very first self-propelled road vehicle was a military tractor invented by French engineer and mechanic, Nicolas Joseph Cugnot (1725 - 1804). Cugnot used a steam engine to power his vehicle, built under his instructions at the Paris Arsenal by mechanic Brezin. It was used by the French Army to haul artillery at a whopping speed of 2 1/2 mph on only three wheels. The vehicle had to stop every ten to fifteen minutes to build up steam power. The steam engine and boiler were separate from the rest of the vehicle and placed in the front (see engraving above). The following year (1770), Cugnot built a steam-powered tricycle that carried four passengers.

? 1881 Alexandru Ciurcu - obtine un brevet din Franta prin care prevede posibilitatea zborului cu reactie.
The earliest rockets were almost certainly Chinese—there is little doubt that the Chinese first developed “black powder,” the basic propellant used in rockets. The combination of salt-peter, charcoal, and sulphur was probably used in fireworks by the Chinese centuries before Christ lived, but the only written records available are dated well into the Middle Ages.
Mongols besieging the city of Kaifeng in 1232 used arrows propelled by rockets (though primarily as a psychological weapon).
Knowledge about rocketry seems to have moved with the Mongol invasions—the Arabs are seen as having developed rockets by the thirteenth century and are reported as having used them against Saint Louis in the Seventh Crusade; the Italians were experimenting with rockets by the fifteenth century. A major refinement in the formula for black powder was made in the thirteenth century by Roger Bacon; this resulted in the creation of gunpowder.
All of those people dreamt of sending people to the moon on the tail of a rocket … Even Cyrano de Bergerac (the real one) did that in a poem …
Conrad Hass (1551-1579), German, an artillery engineer and chief of arsenal of the town of Sibiu. Hass wrote about the construction and the flight tests of multistage rockets, apparently the earliest writings in existence about the science of rocket engineering. How about that???

? 1885 Victor Babes - realizeaza primul tratat de bacteriologie din lume.
May be correct partially… but Pasteur discovered every single entry from the Babes book…see below. I included some additional date for comparison and scale … The Babes Treaty is a list of the following discoveries … And Pasteur is one of many …
1839: Departure to the Royal College of Besançon 1840: Successful candidate for the literature baccalauréat in Besançon. Maître d'études at the College of Besançon 1842: Successful candidate for the mathematical sciences baccalauréat in Dijon 1843: Accepted at the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris 1845: Bachelor of Science 1846: Appointed physics professor at the Tournon high school (Ardèche), but stays on at the Ecole Normale Supérieure as a qualified demonstrator. Study of crystals 1847: Doctor of Science 1848: Appointed physics professor at the Dijon high school. Appointed substitute chemistry professor at the science university of Strasbourg.
Research on dimorphism. Historic paper on the distinction between sodium ammonium paratartrate and tartrate. 1849: Pasteur's wedding with Miss Marie Laurent, daughter of the Strasbourg University rector.
Research on the specific properties of the two acids that make up racemic acid. 1851: Paper by Pasteur on aspartic and malic acids. 1852: New research on relationships that can exist between crystalline forms, chemical composition and the direction of rotatory polarisation. 1853: Pasteur is made Knight of the Imperial Order of the Legion of Honour. He obtains the prize of the Pharmacy Society of Paris for the synthesis of racemic acid. Paper on the discovery of the transformation of tartaric acid into racemic acid, discovery of the optically inactive tartaric acid. 1854: Pasteur is nominated Dean of the University of Science at Lille. 1855: Beginning of studies on fermentation, presentation in Lille of a paper on amyl alcohol. 1856: Beginning of researches on alcoholic fermentation. 1857: Appointed administrator of the Ecole Normale and director of scientific studies of this school. Paper on lactic fermentation. Paper on alcoholic fermentation. 1858: Installation of his laboratory in the attic of the Ecole Normale in Paris, rue d'Ulm Survey by Pasteur on so-called "spontaneous" generations. 1859: Experimental physiology prize from the Academy of Science for his work on fermentations. 1860: Air sampling at Arbois to investigate the issue of so-called "spontaneous" generation. Examination of the doctrine of so-called "spontaneous" generation. 1861: Jecker prize from the Academy of Science for his work on fermentations. Publication in the bulletin of the Chemistry Society of Paris of all his results on vinegar.
1862: Election at the Academy of Science (mineralogy section). Studies on mycoderma and on the role of these plants in acetic fermentation. Alhumbertprize for his research on spontaneous generation. 1863: Napoléon III asks Pasteur to study wine diseases Studies on wine - the influence of air oxygen on vinification. Nominated Professor of Applied Geology, Physics and Chemistry at the National College of Fine Arts 1864: Installation of a laboratory at Arbois for his research on wine 1865: Practical process for improving wine conservation. Studies on silkworm diseases, work on pasteurisation. 1866: Publication of the paper "Studies on wine". Publication of an essay on the scientific work of Claude Bernard. 1867: Creation of a physiological chemistry laboratory at the Ecole Normale. Appointed Professor of organic chemistry at the Sorbonne. Great Prize from the Universal Exhibition for his studies on wine. Resignation from his administrative duties at the Ecole Normale. 1868: Degree as a medical doctor at the University of Bonn. Pasteur suffers from a stroke affecting his left side. Commander of the Legion of Honour. Publication of his studies on vinegar. 1870: Publication of his studies on silkworm diseases. 1871: Studies on beer. 1873: Elected Member of the Academy of Medicine 1876: Publication of his studies on beer. 1877: Paper on the alteration of urine. Studies on anthrax. Studies on septicaemia. 1878: Nominated Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour.
Publication of the paper "Germ theory and its applications to medicine and surgery". Papers on chicken cholera.
Research on gangrene, septicaemia and puerperal fever 1879: Paper on plague. Discovery of immunisation by attenuated cultures. 1880: Becomes Member of the Central Society of Veterinary Medicine. Paper on virulent diseases (Pasteur introduces the principle of attenuated-virus vaccines). Beginning of his research on rabies. 1881: Nominated Grand Cross Holder of the Legion of Honour. Anthrax vaccine. Work on yellow fever near Bordeaux.
Election to the French Academy. 1882: Paper on contagious pleuropneumonia of horned animals. Studies on swine erysipelas. 1883: Vaccination against swine erysipelas using an attenuated-virus vaccine. 1884: New communications on rabies. Communication on pathogenic microbes and attenuated-virus vaccines at the Copenhagen Congress. Pasteur presents the general principle of vaccinations against virulent diseases. 1885: First anti-rabies vaccination on a human being

? 1886 Alexandru Ciurcu - construieste prima ambarcatiune cu reactie.
It’s more complicated, Ciurcu e numai un participant … one of two; also, educated in France.
Desire and Victoire Piot (A late eighteenth century French engineer / inventor and the origins of the Vapour Pulse Jet) probably fled France on the out break of the Franco–Prussian war in 1870 finally arriving in London where he tested his first successful pulse jet boats. Desire Piot could well have been inspired by a rocket powered boat developed by Just Buisson and Ciurcu. Not so successful demonstrations of their jet boat on the river Seine in Paris took place from August to December 1886 for the benefit of the French Ministry of Defense.

? 1887 C. I. Istrate - Friedelina si franceinele.

? 1895 D. Hurmuzescu - descopera electroscopul.
Jean Antoine Nollet (1700–1770) was a clergyman and physicist. In 1748, Nollet invented one of the first electrometers, the electroscope, which detected the presence of electric charge by using electrostatic attraction and repulsion. Nollet later wrote a theory on electrical attraction and repulsion based on the existence of a continuous flow of electrical matter between charged bodies and became the the first professor of experimental physics at the University of Paris.
Many others including George Washington did the same before our guy … 1755 or so …

? 1899 C.I. Istrate - o noua clasa de coloranti.
Maybe …

? 1900 Nicolae Teclu - becul cu reglarea curentului electric si gaz.
Are you serious??? “Becul de labborator cu reglarea curentului de AER si gaz”; big difference!!!
How about Bunsen? Premix (meaning air and gas) burners were the first purpose-designed burners, and they can be traced back more than 100 years to the Bunsen and similar laboratory burners. A premix burner system really consists of two key components, the burner head or nozzle, and the gas-air mixing device that feeds it. In some cases they're built as a single unit. The mixer uses the energy of a pressurized stream of air and/or gas to mix the two and present them to the burner nozzle, which provides an ignition and anchoring point for the flame and controls its shape.

? 1904 Emil Racovita - fondatorul biospeologiei.
Absolutely correct!!!

? 1905 Augustin Maior - telefonia multipla.
AT&T 1902 … also Bell Laboratoryes …

? 1906, 18.03 - Traian Vuia - avionul cu tren de aterizare pe roti cu pneuri; cu ?Vuia I? acesta reuseste prima decolare fara sa foloseasca nici un mijloc ajutator, numai cu aparate aflate la bord (în fapt, primul avion din istorie).
Are you serious?
The first powered heavier-than-air flight took place in 1890 (Clement Ader, steam engine on bat-winged monoplane, 60 yards). The Wrights' 1903 flight (300 yards) was the first photographed heavier-than-air flight. [Correction: not quite true; there exist photos of Lilienthal's non-powered heavier-than-air flights in the 1890s.] After the advent of relatively light combustion engines (such as Benz, Otto, Diesel), other pioneers pursued similar approaches, but no photographs were taken by Richard Pearse (New Zealand, March 1903) and Karl Jatho (August 1903). Finally, the Wrights needed headwinds or catapults to start their planes, so they were not fully self-powered. But Brazil's Santos-Dumont was (1906, first official airplane flight).
Important stuff: Richard Pearse March 31, 1902. Accounts by witnesses of the flight vary, from "50 to 400 yards in length", but it seems most likely that it was around 350 yards long, and ending prematurely when the flying machine landed in a large hedge - 4 metres off the ground ! The aircraft was the first to use proper ailerons, instead of the inferior wing warping system that the Wright's used. The flying machine also had a modern tricycle type landing gear, thus negating the need for ramps, slides, or skids. Any suitable road would do. The flying machine was aerodynamically crude, for sure, but did the job on the day, and in fact for months afterwards. By the end of July 1903, Pearse had achieved flights of around one kilometre in length, and perhaps even more amazingly, some of them included turns ! An absolutely fantastic achievement for the time. Pearce also built the engine, which was estimated at about 15 - 22hp, but hampered by a much cruder propeller than the Wright's machine.

? 1906 A.A. Beldiman - aparatul hidraulic cu dalta de percutie pentru sondaje adânci.
Tough to prove!!!

? 1908 Lazar Edeleanu ? primul procedeu de rafinare a produselor petroliere cu bioxid de sulf din lume, procedeu care ii poarta numele.
A good one!!! Oil helped us a lot in the first half of last century.

? 1908 Acad. Nicolaie Vasilescu-Karpen - ?pila Karpen", care functioneaza înca si produce curent electric, neîntrerupt, de aproape 100 de ani!
William Grove produced the first fuel cell in 1839 over 150 years ago. He based his experiment on the fact that sending an electric current through water splits the water into its component parts of hydrogen and oxygen. So, Grove tried reversing the reaction - combining hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity and water. This is the basis of a simple fuel cell. The term “fuel cell” was coined later in 1889 by Ludwig Mond and Charles Langer, who attempted to build the first practical device using air and industrial coal gas.

? 1910 iunie - Aurel Vlaicu - lanseaza primul avion din lume fuselat aerodinamic.
See also Rolland Garos and other Santos-Dumont financed … French aircraft … and … so… on …

? 1910 Tache Brumarescu - masina de taiat sulf.
So what? The Austrians have invented the sowing machine before that. So what. The English invented the automated knitting machines before that. So what?

? 1910 Stefan Procopiu - efectul circular al discontinuitatilor de magnetism.
Bohr-Procopiu magneton … amazing participation to highly sophisticated physics. An excellent one …

? 1910 Gh. Marinescu - tratamentul paraliziei generale.
Close but no cigar! It was alive and well in America before 1900 …

? 1910 Henri Coanda reuseste primul zbor al unui avion cu reactie (fabricatie proprie).
Correct!!! First and foremost, it is now being recognized as the first air-reactive engine (jet) aircraft, making its first and only flight October, 1910. ... in Paris (not Romania, of course).

? 1910 Ioan Cantacuzino - ? fenomenul Cantacuzino? (aglutinarea unor microbi).
How about this? First experiments with streptococcal agglutination Paul Moser and Bensaude, Le phenomene de l'agglutination des. microbes. Carre, Paris 1897. ...

? 1913-1916 Ioan Cantacuzino - vaccinarea antiholerica (metoda Cantacuzino)
Pasteur was known as the father of stereochemistry, but his contributions to microbiology and medicine were greater. Pasteur discovered anaerobic bacteria and two silkworm diseases. It was he who discovered that if you take a microbe that causes a particular disease, for instance, smallpox, and make a weakened form of it, that weakened smallpox microbe can be used to fight off the stronger smallpox microbes. Doctors now inoculate people against all kinds of diseases and, for a time, had almost eradicated smallpox. Pasteur also invented the anthrax vaccine, the cholera vaccine, and the rabies vaccine. He died in 1895.

? 1916 D. Danielopolu - actiunea hipertensiva a digitalei.
The man credited with the introduction of digitalis into the practice of medicine was William Withering. Withering was born in Wellington, Shropshire, England in 1741. He followed in the medical footsteps of his father who was an apothecary-surgeon. Withering received his MD degree in 1766. As an individual, William Withering was an extremely giving person. He would personally see and treat two or three thousand poor patients a year limiting him to making about 1000 British pounds as compared to his contemporary doctors who made 5000 British pounds per year. Withering published about 19 articles during his lifetime. After fighting a long battle with tuberculosis, William Withering, the father of digitalis medicine, died on October 6 1799, at the age of 58.

? 1918 Gogu Constantinescu - întemeiaza o noua stiinta: sonicitatea.
Correct but not in Romania; in England where he educated himself and become a teacher of physics. Had he stayed in Romania he would have done nothing like most of us …

? 1919 Stefan Procopiu - unitatea elementara de energie magnetica (magnetonul).
Same as above, verry good!!!

? 1920 Emil Racovita - pune bazele Institutul de Speologie Cluj (primul din lume).
First in the world is tough to prove!!!

? 1920 ing. Gheorghe Botezatu - a calculat traiectoriile posibile Pamânt - Luna, folosite la pregatirea programelor ?Apollo? (al caror parinte a fost sibianul Herman Oberth); el a fost si seful echipei de matematicieni care a lucrat la proiectul rachetei ?Apollo? care a dus primul om pe Luna.
About the calculations Earth-Moon you must be kidding.
Herman Oberth also started Hitler’s V1 and, by the way, hated Romania and wrote to German leadership to dump Romania as an ally …

? 1921 Aurel Persu - automobilul fara diferential, cu motor în spate (de forma ?picaturii de apa").
Could be but it does not work …

? 1921 Nicolae Paulescu - descopera insulina; pentru ca era un anti-mason virulent, Premiul Nobel l-au primit canadienii F. Banting si J.R.J. McLeod pentru aceasta descoperire?
It should already be clear that 1920 comes before 1921 but anyway … there were others also …
1908 German scientist, Georg Zuelzer develops the first injectible pancreatic extract to suppress glycosuria; however, there are extreme side effects to the treatment.
1010-1920 Frederick Madison Allen and Elliot P. Joslin emerge as the two leading diabetes specialists in the United States.
1913 Allen, after three years of diabetes study, publishes Studies Concerning Glycosuria and Diabetes, a book which is significant for the revolution in diabetes therapy that developed from it.
1919 Frederick Allen publishes Total Dietary Regulation in the Treatment of Diabetes, citing exhaustive case records of 76 of the 100 diabetes patients he observed, becomes the director of diabetes research at the Rockefeller Institute.
July 1, 1920 Dr. Banting opens his first office in London, Ontario. He receives his first patient on July 29th; his total earnings for his first month of work is $4.00.

? 1921 Stefan Procopiu - Fenomenul Procopiu (depolarizarea luminii).
May be …

? 1922 C.Levaditi si Sazevac - bismutul ca agent terapeutic împotriva sifilisului.
Syphilis was treated with mercury or other ineffective remedies until World War I (1914-1916), when effective treatments based on arsenic or bismuth were introduced. These were succeeded by antibiotics after World War II.

? 1925 Traian Vuia - generatorul de abur cu ardere în camera închisa si cu vaporizare instantanee.
Vuia was a great engineer, but when he tried to patent his airplane the Arsenal in Romania threw him out and he had to go to France to find forward looking people to fund his invention … Now we want him! La placinte innainte, la razboi innapoi …

? 1930 Elie Carafoli - avionul cu aripa joasa.
Zdenek Lhota - Czechoslovakia – 1925 - flew the BH-11 low-wing monoplane.
Albert W. (Al) Mooney - chief engineer at Alexander (1928-1929) was responsible for the Bullet, an advanced, high speed, low wing monoplane. With Mooney's patented retractable landing gear, it was a mild sensation and ahead of its time.

? 1933 Henri Coanda - aerodina lenticulara (farfuria zburatoare).
? 1938 Henri Coanda - efectul Coanda.
? 1938 Henri Coanda - discul volant.
The Coanda Effect is a real Romanian contribution to the progress of science. All good!!! But again in England, not in Romania. That should tell anyone something …

? 1952 Ia fiinta Institutul National de Geronto-Geriatrie ?Dr. Ana Aslan", primul institut de geriatrie din lume, model pentru tarile dezvoltate, prin asistenta clinica si cercetare. ?Ana Aslan? are, anual, mii de pacienti.
A big lie …and a lot of word of mouth phony advertising …

Exagerarea contributiei noastre la motorul societatii umane ii face pe unii romani sa creada ca, de buni ce suntem, n-avem nimic de schimbat, iar ceilalti sa ne pupe ...

Sarcina celor ce publca e sa corecteze asta.

Dan Manoliu
Legile lui Murphy - de anisia la: 11/08/2005 16:04:25
azi mi-a cazut o felie de paine pe jos si bineinteles ca a aterizat cu partea unsa pe parchet. mi-am zis:"normal, legile lui murphy!" apoi am incercat sa mai imi amintesc din ele, dar nu am reusit. cine mai stie care sunt?
HUMANITY PHOTO AWARDS 2006 - de Dinu Lazar la: 31/10/2005 07:05:21
(la: O conversatie cu DINU LAZAR, fotograf)
All over the world, many traditional customs are changing, and some vanishing forever. The aim of this contest is to encourage the recording of traditional customs and the evolution of various folk cultures through the use of photography, and to stimulate international interest in the study, exploration, rescue, preservation, and indeed, enjoyment of our cultural heritage. It is an initiative created out of respect for our common humanity and in a spirit of international good will.
Opening Date: September 1, 2005
Deadline: March 31, 2006 (Entries received after this date will be held over until the next contest.)
Jury: Entries will undergo appraisal by an international jury panel formed by nine accomplished photographers and scholars with expertise in the study of culture. The jury panel decides prize-winning photographs on the basis of both aesthetic quality and documentary value in May 2006. A group of 3 to 5 theorists, critics and journalists will observe and commentate the judging process.
Announcement: The final result will be announced at CFPA’s website before June 15, 2006.
Awards Ceremony & Opening Ceremony of Winning photos Exhibition: October 2006.
The contest is based on picture stories/portfolios of between 6 to 12 photographs. Single photographs will not be accepted. Please enter into the following categories:
A. Portrait & Costume
Including portraits with special national features, mode of dress, hairstyles and other adornments.
B. Architecture
Including residential, religious and public buildings, interior and exterior views, structures, details, furniture, decorations and construction processes.
C. Daily Life
Reflecting ways of life, including routine means of production, such as fishing, hunting, farming, forestry, animal husbandry, markets, transportation, preparation and consumption of foodstuffs and liquor and other activities; and the living customs of a particular group, tribe or region.
D. Festivities
Including feasts, celebrations, religious festival and ceremonies of all kinds.
E. Education, Recreation, Sport & Technology
Including education, entertainment, traditional sports, games, drama, art, handicrafts, learning, traditional medicine and technology.
F. Traditional Rites
Including birth, initiation, wedding, funeral, taboo, worship, morality, reciprocal courtesy, traditional etiquette, traditional ceremony of family, village or ethnic group, and local belief.
Humanity Photo Top Award
Top Award is to be selected from First Prize-winning photographs in all categories. The selection will be made on the basis of outstanding merit, both in terms of documentary value and aesthetic quality. The winning work should best reflect the philosophy of the contest. This award carries a cash prize of RMB60,000, an award certificate, a copy of the contest collection book or CD, and an invitation to China (including a return flight ticket and hotel accommodation) to attend the awards ceremony and exhibition opening ceremony.
Humanity Photo Theme Awards
In each category there will be one first, two second and three third prize winners. Each winner receives prize money, an award certificate, a copy of the contest collection book or CD, and an invitation to the ceremonies with accommodation provided.
First Prize: a cash award of RMB16,000 and a return flight ticket to the ceremonies;
Second Prize: a cash award of RMB6,600;
Third Prize: a cash award of RMB3,600.
Humanity Photo Documentary Award
There will be 100 winners selected for these awards. Each winner receives an award certificate, a copy of the contest collection book or CD, and an invitation to the ceremonies with accommodation provided.
All participants are invited to award ceremonies, and each is to receive a HPA certificate. (Travel and accommodation expenses will be at his/her own cost.)
N.B. The cash prizes for winners outside of China will be paid in the equivalent amount of US dollars. (Indicating exchange rate: 1USD to 8.3 RMB)
Entry Rules (please read carefully and fill in Entry Forms accordingly)
1. There are no restrictions of profession, gender, age or nationality for participants.
2. One photo story entered by two participants will not be accepted. The name on the Entry Form must be the same as shown on the passport. Please use only Chinese or English to fill in the Entry Forms. And legible handwriting is required; if not, to print them out.
3. The photographs must be taken by the participant him/herself.
4. Members of the jury, observers and working staff of HPA2006 cannot enter the contest.
5. Entries can comprise of several ethnic groups in one country or one nationality living in different countries.
6. There is no time limit as to when entries were taken. They can have been taken on one occasion or over a period of time.
7. Composite images and trick photographs will not be accepted.
8. Only picture stories or sets of pictures can be entered. Single photographs will not be accepted. Each entry should consist of a minimum of 6 and maximum of 12 photographs. No more than 3 entries per participant may be submitted. Participants are solely responsible for choosing the proper categories. No switching of categories are allowed after submission.
9. Slides will not be accepted. E-mail entries will not be accepted.
10. For digital photos, a set of prints on photographic printing paper with print quality no less than 300dpi are to be sent in by mail together with a virus free CD-ROM where photos are stored in TIFF or un- pressed JPG format in no less than 300dpi and 30cm on longer side.
11. Only black or color prints may be entered. The minimum size is 20.3cm (8 inches) and the maximum size is 30.5cm (12 inches)------ The size means the trim size barring the margins of the photos.
12. Photographs must not be mounted. No paster, staples or pins should be used.
13. Submitted material should be carefully made. Under normal circumstances, the negatives or originals will not be required for scrutiny but the organizers reserve the right to do so for exceptional reasons. Refusal for co-operation may diminish chances to win awards.
14. Photographs that have won prizes or been exhibited in other competitions are free to enter. Photographs that have won prizes in previous HPA contests cannot be entered.
15. One participant should only fill one “Entry Form I”. Every photo story submitted should be accompanied by one set of “Entry Form II” with a title and authentic caption information in Chinese or English. Do not affix them on the photos. The category code(A-F), the story sequence number and total numbers should be written on back of each photo in pencil. Do not write any personal information on the photograph.
16. Entries should be forwarded either by mail or by courier. Please send the entries in flat envelope, not in roll. Please write “Photographs for the Humanity Photo Awards Contest & No Commercial Value” on the package to avoid extra costs and delays at the Customs.
17. Entries together with entry forms must be received by the sponsor CFPA on or before March 31, 2006. (The arrival date as postmarked by the Beijing Post Office controls.)
18. There is no entry fee. Photographs will not be returned. Do not send the originals.
19. In order to promote HPA and its activities, the sponsor has the right to use entries submitted for the contest in publications, exhibitions, TV programs, etc., without remuneration.
20. Any legal responsibility relating to entries, such as copyright, right of reputation and portrait, will be borne by the participants. Submission of entries signifies acceptance of above conditions. All Entry Forms must be signed. Entries accompanied by unsigned forms will be disqualified.
21. There are Entry Forms and articles of humanity photo awards 2006 at Please download them there. Printing and copy both have the same validity.

More information about HPA at
#83145 (raspuns la: #82810) comenteaza . modifica . semnaleaza adminului
Pentru cai care au ochi sa ci - de mya la: 20/06/2006 19:43:32
(la: Despre patriotism)
Pentru cai care au ochi sa citeasca si, mai ales, minte sa inteleaga, un citat din "Notes on Nationalism" de George Orwell:

"Nationalism is not to be confused with patriotism.... By 'patriotism' I mean devotion to a particular place and a particular way of life, which one believes to be the best in the world but has no wish to force on other people. Patriotism is of its nature defensive, both militarily and culturally. Nationalism, on the other hand, is inseparable from the desire for power. The abiding purpose of every nationalist is to secure more power and more prestige, not for himself but for the nation or other unit in which he has chosen to sink his own individuality. ...It does not necessarily mean loyalty to a government or a country, still less to one's own country.... A nationalist is one who thinks solely, or mainly, in terms of competitive prestige. He may be a positive or a negative nationalist - that is, he may use his mental energy either in boosting or in denigrating - but at any rate his thoughts always turn on victories, defeats, triumphs and humiliations. He sees history, especially contemporary history, as the endless rise and decline of great power units, and every event that happens seems to him a demonstration that his own side is on the upgrade and some hated rival is on the downgrade."

Expunerea intreaga se poate citi aici:

Paianjene, ia pune tu mana pa Uoruel asta si explica-i tu, ca nu stie nimic...
Murphy - de Baloo_ la: 23/08/2006 09:24:10
(la: ce va enerveaza?)
Il iubesc pe Murphy! Pentru ca atunci cand ma enervez il pot prezenta ca tap ispasitor. Dau pur si simplu vina pe el (ca doar e uman a da vina pe altii :))) ). Un adevarat prieten! :))

Twin Peaks : " Bufnita nu este ceea ce pare ... "
recomand cartea lui Raymond M - de Calypso la: 01/09/2006 22:29:08
(la: viata...dupa moarte?)
recomand cartea lui Raymond Moody "La vie après la vie" sau "Life after life" ;
eu am cumparat-o prin 1994-1995 din Ro dar
cred ca se mai gaseste inca;
regulile poeziei - de piliutza la: 08/11/2007 16:22:22
(la: Intrebare)
Keep it short.
Leave it long.
Use bad grammar.
Spell words wrong.
Let the letters
All f
Print a few lines
Upside down.
Change the rhythm.
Never rhyme.
Force the meter
All the time.
Find your keys.
Lose your tools.
By the way --

Douglas Florian
Murphy - de zaraza sc la: 07/07/2008 14:06:01
(la: oare ce-o sa iasa???)
Legea impartirii, a lui Murphy

Totdeauna cand vreau sa impart ceva, trebuie sa impart doua obiecte la trei persoane. Si nu ma pot abtine sa nu le spun asta pe sleau. :))

umor australian - de proletaru la: 07/01/2009 12:18:27
(la: Spatiu pentru tavalit de ras)
Q: Does it ever get windy in Australia ? I have never seen it rain on TV, how do the plants grow? ( UK ).

A: We import all plants fully grown and then just sit around watching them die.

Q: Will I be able to see kangaroos in the street? ( USA )

A: Depends how much you've been drinking.

Q: I want to walk from Perth to Sydney - can I follow the railroad tracks? ( Sweden )

A: Sure, it's only three thousand miles, take lots of water.

Q: Are there any ATMs (cash machines) in Australia ? Can you send me a list of them in Brisbane , Cairns ,Townsville and Hervey Bay ? ( UK )

A: What did your last slave die of?

Q: Can you give me some information about hippo racing in Australia ? ( USA )

A: A-fri-ca is the big triangle shaped continent south of Europe .
Aus-tra-lia is that big island in the middle of the Pacific which does not... oh forget it.
Sure, the hippo racing is every Tuesday night in Kings Cross. Come naked.

Q: Which direction is North in Australia ? ( USA )

A: Face south and then turn 180 degrees.
Contact us when you get here and we'll send the rest of the directions.

Q: Can I bring cutlery into Australia ? ( UK )

A: Why? Just use your fingers like we do.

Q: Can you send me the Vienna Boys' Choir schedule? ( USA )

A: Aus-tri-a is that quaint little country bordering Ger-man-y, which is .
oh forget it. Sure, the Vienna Boys Choir plays every Tuesday night in Kings Cross,
straight after the hippo races. Come naked.

Q: Can I wear high heels in Australia ? ( UK )

A: You are a British politician, right?

Q: Are there supermarkets in Sydney and is milk available all year round? ( Germany )

A: No, we are a peaceful civilization of vegan hunter/gatherers. Milk is illegal.

Q: Please send a list of all doctors in Australia who can Dispense rattlesnake serum. ( USA )

A: Rattlesnakes live in A-meri-ca which is where YOU come from.
All Australian snakes are perfectly harmless, can be safely handled and make good pets.

Q: I have a question about a famous animal in Australia , but I forget its name.
It's a kind of bear and lives in trees. ( USA )

A: It's called a Drop Bear. They are so called because they drop out of Gum trees and eat the brains of anyone walking underneath them.
You can scare them off by spraying yourself with human urine before you go out walking.

Q: I have developed a new product that is the fountain of youth.
Can you tell me where I can sell it in Australia ? ( USA )

A: Anywhere significant numbers of Americans gather.

Q: Can you tell me the regions in Tasmania where the female population is smaller than the
male population? ( Italy )

A: Yes, gay night clubs.

Q: Do you celebrate Christmas in Australia ? ( France )

A: Only at Christmas.

Q: I was in Australia in 1969 on R+R, and I want to contact the Girl I dated while I was staying in
Kings Cross*. Can you help? ( USA )

A: Yes, and you will still have to pay her by the hour..

Q: Will I be able to speak English most places I go? ( USA )

A: Yes, but you'll have to learn it first !
sorinele - de zaraza la: 18/05/2009 18:30:15 Modificat la: 18/05/2009 18:33:22
(la: Ghicitoare)
Patrunjel, semiluna este simbolul islamului, fie ca este pe drapelele oficiale ale tarilor musulmane, fie ca nu. O stiu pana si copii de gradinita numai tu nu.

hai ca m-ai enervat, dar tot raul spre bine, am mai invatat ceva. poate inveti si tu, cu ocazia asta si data viitoare incearca sa nu te mai informezi de la copiii de gradinita.

check this out:

The American Muslim scholar, Sheik Yusuf Estes, Director of, and National Chaplain WAMY, adds:

“The symbol of Islam IS NOT the crescent moon and the star, but it was used by the last Islamic Dynasty, the Ottoman’s. The Ottoman Empire deemed it appropriate to use the star and crescent as their symbols, but not the symbols of Islam. I repeat, the star and the crescent moon are not a part of the religion of Islam. Because Islam is so strict on the concept of no other gods with Allah; and no images of any kind; it is a mistake to consider that Islam authorized the general use of such things. Additionally, Islam forbids the images (statues) of any kinds of humans, animals or any of Allah’s creations, so how about using a symbol for Islam?”

luata de aici:

#440658 (raspuns la: #440601) comenteaza . modifica . semnaleaza adminului
nope, citatele nu sunt ale lui Murphy, - de Intruder la: 05/10/2011 19:28:14
(la: din cugetarile cocosului de tabla!)
sau - in cel mai bun caz - sunt "ajustate".
pe net si in spam-uri de email circula tot felul de "citate", vezi-doamne de Murphy...
#623285 (raspuns la: #623248) comenteaza . modifica . semnaleaza adminului
Aoleo Pesca... - de Victorian Silă la: 02/08/2013 17:11:09
(la: Haiku-ul unui nou început)
Haiku (俳句, haikai verse?) listen (help·info) (no separate plural form) is a very short form of Japanese poetry typically characterised by three qualities:

The essence of haiku is "cutting" (kiru).[1] This is often represented by the juxtaposition of two images or ideas and a kireji ("cutting word") between them,[2] a kind of verbal punctuation mark which signals the moment of separation and colours the manner in which the juxtaposed elements are related.
Traditional haiku consist of 17 on (also known as morae), in three phrases of 5, 7 and 5 on respectively.[3] Any one of the three phrases may end with the kireji.[4] Although haiku are often stated to have 17 syllables,[5] this is inaccurate as syllables and on are not the same.
A kigo (seasonal reference), usually drawn from a saijiki, an extensive but defined list of such words.
Modern Japanese haiku (現代俳句, gendai-haiku?) are increasingly unlikely to follow the tradition of 17 on or to take nature as their subject, but the use of juxtaposition continues to be honoured in both traditional and modern haiku.[6] There is a common, although relatively recent, perception that the images juxtaposed must be directly observed everyday objects or occurrences.[7]

In Japanese, haiku are traditionally printed in a single vertical line while haiku in English often appear in three lines to parallel the three phrases of Japanese haiku.
#646694 (raspuns la: #646693) comenteaza . modifica . semnaleaza adminului
Porsche / Auto sport - de (anonim) la: 04/09/2003 15:33:48
(la: Apasarea pe acceleratie, franare-in-forta si diverse sporturi vestimentare)
Nu inteleg foarte bine intrebarea din comentariul tau.
Ce e aia o masina sport ?
Ce se poate face cu un Porsche ?
Poate fi considerat sport conducerea unei masini ?

Mai intai o precizare: se scrie PORSCHE si nu Porche. Porsche este una dintre putinele masini cu adevarat "Sport" care se poate cumpara la mai putin de $150,000 USD.

Prima intrebare: o masina cu doua usi, sau pe care scrie sport sau GT nu este tot aia cu o masina sport. Am vazut Ford Fiesta GT Sport. Asta nu e o masina sport. O masina sport este o masina care poate sa treaca de 250 kmh fara sa sara de pe drum, si fara sa simti ca o sa se desprinda in bucati daca apesi acceleratia un milimetru mai mult. O masina sport nu inseamna o masina comoda, cu aer conditionat si CD player (pentru asta sint limuzinele). Inseamna o masina in care te urci ca sa o conduci si sa simti ca toti caii putere din motor te asculta, si ca masina reactioneaza la cea mai mica miscare din accelerator, frana sau volan. Nu in ultimul rand, din motive de securitate o masina de sport nu se conduce pe drumuri publice - ci pe o pista de curse.

A doua intrebare: daca n-ai stat niciodata la volanulul unui Porshe sa-l vezi cum merge, si cum reactioneaza cei approx 230-400 de cai putere (in functie de versiunea masinii) la comenzile tale, nu prea ai cum sa intelegi ce se poate face intr-un Porsche.

A treia intrebare: daca n-ai condus un Porsche (sau alta masina 'Sport') pe o pista de curse - la limita superioara a performantelor ei, acolo unde diferenta dintre 296.0 kmh si 296.5 kmh devine enorma, iar sutimea de secunda dureaza o eternitate, nu ai cum sa apreciezi ce este aia auto sport.

Asa ca daca vrei sa afli cu adevarat raspunsul, urca-te intr-un Porsche, invarte cheia in contact si calc-o. Dar nu pe drumurile publice, ca aia nu mai e sport ci nebunie. Ci pe o pista de curse. Cand ai sa vezi ca desi acceleratia este apasata la podea, vitezometrul se misca mai incet ca melcul, si ca-ti trebuie 15-20 de secunde sa creasca viteza cu 1 kmh, atunci ai sa stii raspunsurile la toate aceste intrebari.

Pentru alte precizari, nu ezita sa intrebi.
bravo, Ingrid! - de gabi la: 15/10/2003 17:34:36
(la: Actori preferati)
Peter O'Toole - Becket (si altele)
Jodie Foster!
Charles Laughton - Les miserables (1935)!
Julia Stiles! - 10 things I hate about you ('99)
Heath Ledger - same
Redford & Newmann - The Sting ('73?)
Charles Chaplin
Jean Gabin
Robert de Niro
Jack Nicholson!
Sophia Loren
Merryl Streep!
Anthony Hopkins!
Sean Connery
Sean Penn
Nicole Kidman
Catherine Zeta-Jones
Jane Fonda
Anjelica Huston
Richard Burton!
Eddie Murphy
Matt Damon!
Johnny Deep
John Turturro!
Mircea Diaconu
Marin Moraru
Selma Hayek
Olga Bucataru
John Malkovitch
Ioan Gyuri Pascu (stiu...stiu, dar totusi!)
Cate Blanchett - Elizabeth (1998)
Gwyneth Paltrow
Al Pacino
Rona Hartner - The crazy stranger (1997)
Robert Duvall
Rowan Atkinson!

I-am (le-am) exclus deliberat (si pe nedrept) pe majoritatea celor mai fotogenici/e sau/si supra-popularizati/e...

#1426 (raspuns la: #1422) comenteaza . modifica . semnaleaza adminului
o shurubelnitza - de papadie67 la: 28/10/2003 03:45:10
(la: o poveste...)
A fost parasita de mult, are-un pic de rugina deja...

Cugetu-mi neostoit si nepreocupat ori nici macar ocupat se umfla turbat, rupandu-se-n sfere sfasiate-n cercuri de presupus patrat.

As continua-n triunghiuri de rombi, da' uite c' a venit in fine animalu' de pe unde-o fi fost...suna la s-aud ce tampenii-mi mai toarna iarasi ca scuze...unde dracului mi-am pus chilotzii aia in figuri?

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