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scuzele pentru ortografie nu-s destule - de Dan Manoliu la: 23/06/2005 21:42:41
(la: "Ce bine e sa fi desptept si in acelasi timp si roman")
? 1827 - Petrache Poenaru, membru al Academiei Romane si unul dintre organizatorii învatamântului national inventeaza predecesorul stiloului modern: ?condei portaret, fara sfârsit, alimentându?se singur cu cerneala?
Homer had a long lasting writing pen made of reed.
Da Vinci drew improvements ..

? 1858 - Bucuresti - primul oras din lume iluminat cu petrol si prima rafinare a petrolului.
Romans had full streets in Rome lighted with torches and with heated sidewalks so that Roman ladies feet do not freeze …
Baltimore in 1816 was the first city to light its streets with gas. ...
Soon much of America, as well as other countries were lighted by gas
First oil refining was done in Ploiesti (not Bucuresti) by Enhlish engineers 1n 1856 … at the time when America found its first oil field … We were ahead here!!!

? 1880 - Dumitru Vasescu - construieste automobilul cu motor cu aburi.
In 1769, the very first self-propelled road vehicle was a military tractor invented by French engineer and mechanic, Nicolas Joseph Cugnot (1725 - 1804). Cugnot used a steam engine to power his vehicle, built under his instructions at the Paris Arsenal by mechanic Brezin. It was used by the French Army to haul artillery at a whopping speed of 2 1/2 mph on only three wheels. The vehicle had to stop every ten to fifteen minutes to build up steam power. The steam engine and boiler were separate from the rest of the vehicle and placed in the front (see engraving above). The following year (1770), Cugnot built a steam-powered tricycle that carried four passengers.

? 1881 Alexandru Ciurcu - obtine un brevet din Franta prin care prevede posibilitatea zborului cu reactie.
The earliest rockets were almost certainly Chinese—there is little doubt that the Chinese first developed “black powder,” the basic propellant used in rockets. The combination of salt-peter, charcoal, and sulphur was probably used in fireworks by the Chinese centuries before Christ lived, but the only written records available are dated well into the Middle Ages.
Mongols besieging the city of Kaifeng in 1232 used arrows propelled by rockets (though primarily as a psychological weapon).
Knowledge about rocketry seems to have moved with the Mongol invasions—the Arabs are seen as having developed rockets by the thirteenth century and are reported as having used them against Saint Louis in the Seventh Crusade; the Italians were experimenting with rockets by the fifteenth century. A major refinement in the formula for black powder was made in the thirteenth century by Roger Bacon; this resulted in the creation of gunpowder.
All of those people dreamt of sending people to the moon on the tail of a rocket … Even Cyrano de Bergerac (the real one) did that in a poem …
Conrad Hass (1551-1579), German, an artillery engineer and chief of arsenal of the town of Sibiu. Hass wrote about the construction and the flight tests of multistage rockets, apparently the earliest writings in existence about the science of rocket engineering. How about that???

? 1885 Victor Babes - realizeaza primul tratat de bacteriologie din lume.
May be correct partially… but Pasteur discovered every single entry from the Babes book…see below. I included some additional date for comparison and scale … The Babes Treaty is a list of the following discoveries … And Pasteur is one of many …
1839: Departure to the Royal College of Besançon 1840: Successful candidate for the literature baccalauréat in Besançon. Maître d'études at the College of Besançon 1842: Successful candidate for the mathematical sciences baccalauréat in Dijon 1843: Accepted at the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris 1845: Bachelor of Science 1846: Appointed physics professor at the Tournon high school (Ardèche), but stays on at the Ecole Normale Supérieure as a qualified demonstrator. Study of crystals 1847: Doctor of Science 1848: Appointed physics professor at the Dijon high school. Appointed substitute chemistry professor at the science university of Strasbourg.
Research on dimorphism. Historic paper on the distinction between sodium ammonium paratartrate and tartrate. 1849: Pasteur's wedding with Miss Marie Laurent, daughter of the Strasbourg University rector.
Research on the specific properties of the two acids that make up racemic acid. 1851: Paper by Pasteur on aspartic and malic acids. 1852: New research on relationships that can exist between crystalline forms, chemical composition and the direction of rotatory polarisation. 1853: Pasteur is made Knight of the Imperial Order of the Legion of Honour. He obtains the prize of the Pharmacy Society of Paris for the synthesis of racemic acid. Paper on the discovery of the transformation of tartaric acid into racemic acid, discovery of the optically inactive tartaric acid. 1854: Pasteur is nominated Dean of the University of Science at Lille. 1855: Beginning of studies on fermentation, presentation in Lille of a paper on amyl alcohol. 1856: Beginning of researches on alcoholic fermentation. 1857: Appointed administrator of the Ecole Normale and director of scientific studies of this school. Paper on lactic fermentation. Paper on alcoholic fermentation. 1858: Installation of his laboratory in the attic of the Ecole Normale in Paris, rue d'Ulm Survey by Pasteur on so-called "spontaneous" generations. 1859: Experimental physiology prize from the Academy of Science for his work on fermentations. 1860: Air sampling at Arbois to investigate the issue of so-called "spontaneous" generation. Examination of the doctrine of so-called "spontaneous" generation. 1861: Jecker prize from the Academy of Science for his work on fermentations. Publication in the bulletin of the Chemistry Society of Paris of all his results on vinegar.
1862: Election at the Academy of Science (mineralogy section). Studies on mycoderma and on the role of these plants in acetic fermentation. Alhumbertprize for his research on spontaneous generation. 1863: Napoléon III asks Pasteur to study wine diseases Studies on wine - the influence of air oxygen on vinification. Nominated Professor of Applied Geology, Physics and Chemistry at the National College of Fine Arts 1864: Installation of a laboratory at Arbois for his research on wine 1865: Practical process for improving wine conservation. Studies on silkworm diseases, work on pasteurisation. 1866: Publication of the paper "Studies on wine". Publication of an essay on the scientific work of Claude Bernard. 1867: Creation of a physiological chemistry laboratory at the Ecole Normale. Appointed Professor of organic chemistry at the Sorbonne. Great Prize from the Universal Exhibition for his studies on wine. Resignation from his administrative duties at the Ecole Normale. 1868: Degree as a medical doctor at the University of Bonn. Pasteur suffers from a stroke affecting his left side. Commander of the Legion of Honour. Publication of his studies on vinegar. 1870: Publication of his studies on silkworm diseases. 1871: Studies on beer. 1873: Elected Member of the Academy of Medicine 1876: Publication of his studies on beer. 1877: Paper on the alteration of urine. Studies on anthrax. Studies on septicaemia. 1878: Nominated Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour.
Publication of the paper "Germ theory and its applications to medicine and surgery". Papers on chicken cholera.
Research on gangrene, septicaemia and puerperal fever 1879: Paper on plague. Discovery of immunisation by attenuated cultures. 1880: Becomes Member of the Central Society of Veterinary Medicine. Paper on virulent diseases (Pasteur introduces the principle of attenuated-virus vaccines). Beginning of his research on rabies. 1881: Nominated Grand Cross Holder of the Legion of Honour. Anthrax vaccine. Work on yellow fever near Bordeaux.
Election to the French Academy. 1882: Paper on contagious pleuropneumonia of horned animals. Studies on swine erysipelas. 1883: Vaccination against swine erysipelas using an attenuated-virus vaccine. 1884: New communications on rabies. Communication on pathogenic microbes and attenuated-virus vaccines at the Copenhagen Congress. Pasteur presents the general principle of vaccinations against virulent diseases. 1885: First anti-rabies vaccination on a human being

? 1886 Alexandru Ciurcu - construieste prima ambarcatiune cu reactie.
It’s more complicated, Ciurcu e numai un participant … one of two; also, educated in France.
Desire and Victoire Piot (A late eighteenth century French engineer / inventor and the origins of the Vapour Pulse Jet) probably fled France on the out break of the Franco–Prussian war in 1870 finally arriving in London where he tested his first successful pulse jet boats. Desire Piot could well have been inspired by a rocket powered boat developed by Just Buisson and Ciurcu. Not so successful demonstrations of their jet boat on the river Seine in Paris took place from August to December 1886 for the benefit of the French Ministry of Defense.

? 1887 C. I. Istrate - Friedelina si franceinele.

? 1895 D. Hurmuzescu - descopera electroscopul.
Jean Antoine Nollet (1700–1770) was a clergyman and physicist. In 1748, Nollet invented one of the first electrometers, the electroscope, which detected the presence of electric charge by using electrostatic attraction and repulsion. Nollet later wrote a theory on electrical attraction and repulsion based on the existence of a continuous flow of electrical matter between charged bodies and became the the first professor of experimental physics at the University of Paris.
Many others including George Washington did the same before our guy … 1755 or so …

? 1899 C.I. Istrate - o noua clasa de coloranti.
Maybe …

? 1900 Nicolae Teclu - becul cu reglarea curentului electric si gaz.
Are you serious??? “Becul de labborator cu reglarea curentului de AER si gaz”; big difference!!!
How about Bunsen? Premix (meaning air and gas) burners were the first purpose-designed burners, and they can be traced back more than 100 years to the Bunsen and similar laboratory burners. A premix burner system really consists of two key components, the burner head or nozzle, and the gas-air mixing device that feeds it. In some cases they're built as a single unit. The mixer uses the energy of a pressurized stream of air and/or gas to mix the two and present them to the burner nozzle, which provides an ignition and anchoring point for the flame and controls its shape.

? 1904 Emil Racovita - fondatorul biospeologiei.
Absolutely correct!!!

? 1905 Augustin Maior - telefonia multipla.
AT&T 1902 … also Bell Laboratoryes …

? 1906, 18.03 - Traian Vuia - avionul cu tren de aterizare pe roti cu pneuri; cu ?Vuia I? acesta reuseste prima decolare fara sa foloseasca nici un mijloc ajutator, numai cu aparate aflate la bord (în fapt, primul avion din istorie).
Are you serious?
The first powered heavier-than-air flight took place in 1890 (Clement Ader, steam engine on bat-winged monoplane, 60 yards). The Wrights' 1903 flight (300 yards) was the first photographed heavier-than-air flight. [Correction: not quite true; there exist photos of Lilienthal's non-powered heavier-than-air flights in the 1890s.] After the advent of relatively light combustion engines (such as Benz, Otto, Diesel), other pioneers pursued similar approaches, but no photographs were taken by Richard Pearse (New Zealand, March 1903) and Karl Jatho (August 1903). Finally, the Wrights needed headwinds or catapults to start their planes, so they were not fully self-powered. But Brazil's Santos-Dumont was (1906, first official airplane flight).
Important stuff: Richard Pearse March 31, 1902. Accounts by witnesses of the flight vary, from "50 to 400 yards in length", but it seems most likely that it was around 350 yards long, and ending prematurely when the flying machine landed in a large hedge - 4 metres off the ground ! The aircraft was the first to use proper ailerons, instead of the inferior wing warping system that the Wright's used. The flying machine also had a modern tricycle type landing gear, thus negating the need for ramps, slides, or skids. Any suitable road would do. The flying machine was aerodynamically crude, for sure, but did the job on the day, and in fact for months afterwards. By the end of July 1903, Pearse had achieved flights of around one kilometre in length, and perhaps even more amazingly, some of them included turns ! An absolutely fantastic achievement for the time. Pearce also built the engine, which was estimated at about 15 - 22hp, but hampered by a much cruder propeller than the Wright's machine.

? 1906 A.A. Beldiman - aparatul hidraulic cu dalta de percutie pentru sondaje adânci.
Tough to prove!!!

? 1908 Lazar Edeleanu ? primul procedeu de rafinare a produselor petroliere cu bioxid de sulf din lume, procedeu care ii poarta numele.
A good one!!! Oil helped us a lot in the first half of last century.

? 1908 Acad. Nicolaie Vasilescu-Karpen - ?pila Karpen", care functioneaza înca si produce curent electric, neîntrerupt, de aproape 100 de ani!
William Grove produced the first fuel cell in 1839 over 150 years ago. He based his experiment on the fact that sending an electric current through water splits the water into its component parts of hydrogen and oxygen. So, Grove tried reversing the reaction - combining hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity and water. This is the basis of a simple fuel cell. The term “fuel cell” was coined later in 1889 by Ludwig Mond and Charles Langer, who attempted to build the first practical device using air and industrial coal gas.

? 1910 iunie - Aurel Vlaicu - lanseaza primul avion din lume fuselat aerodinamic.
See also Rolland Garos and other Santos-Dumont financed … French aircraft … and … so… on …

? 1910 Tache Brumarescu - masina de taiat sulf.
So what? The Austrians have invented the sowing machine before that. So what. The English invented the automated knitting machines before that. So what?

? 1910 Stefan Procopiu - efectul circular al discontinuitatilor de magnetism.
Bohr-Procopiu magneton … amazing participation to highly sophisticated physics. An excellent one …

? 1910 Gh. Marinescu - tratamentul paraliziei generale.
Close but no cigar! It was alive and well in America before 1900 …

? 1910 Henri Coanda reuseste primul zbor al unui avion cu reactie (fabricatie proprie).
Correct!!! First and foremost, it is now being recognized as the first air-reactive engine (jet) aircraft, making its first and only flight October, 1910. ... in Paris (not Romania, of course).

? 1910 Ioan Cantacuzino - ? fenomenul Cantacuzino? (aglutinarea unor microbi).
How about this? First experiments with streptococcal agglutination Paul Moser and Bensaude, Le phenomene de l'agglutination des. microbes. Carre, Paris 1897. ...

? 1913-1916 Ioan Cantacuzino - vaccinarea antiholerica (metoda Cantacuzino)
Pasteur was known as the father of stereochemistry, but his contributions to microbiology and medicine were greater. Pasteur discovered anaerobic bacteria and two silkworm diseases. It was he who discovered that if you take a microbe that causes a particular disease, for instance, smallpox, and make a weakened form of it, that weakened smallpox microbe can be used to fight off the stronger smallpox microbes. Doctors now inoculate people against all kinds of diseases and, for a time, had almost eradicated smallpox. Pasteur also invented the anthrax vaccine, the cholera vaccine, and the rabies vaccine. He died in 1895.

? 1916 D. Danielopolu - actiunea hipertensiva a digitalei.
The man credited with the introduction of digitalis into the practice of medicine was William Withering. Withering was born in Wellington, Shropshire, England in 1741. He followed in the medical footsteps of his father who was an apothecary-surgeon. Withering received his MD degree in 1766. As an individual, William Withering was an extremely giving person. He would personally see and treat two or three thousand poor patients a year limiting him to making about 1000 British pounds as compared to his contemporary doctors who made 5000 British pounds per year. Withering published about 19 articles during his lifetime. After fighting a long battle with tuberculosis, William Withering, the father of digitalis medicine, died on October 6 1799, at the age of 58.

? 1918 Gogu Constantinescu - întemeiaza o noua stiinta: sonicitatea.
Correct but not in Romania; in England where he educated himself and become a teacher of physics. Had he stayed in Romania he would have done nothing like most of us …

? 1919 Stefan Procopiu - unitatea elementara de energie magnetica (magnetonul).
Same as above, verry good!!!

? 1920 Emil Racovita - pune bazele Institutul de Speologie Cluj (primul din lume).
First in the world is tough to prove!!!

? 1920 ing. Gheorghe Botezatu - a calculat traiectoriile posibile Pamânt - Luna, folosite la pregatirea programelor ?Apollo? (al caror parinte a fost sibianul Herman Oberth); el a fost si seful echipei de matematicieni care a lucrat la proiectul rachetei ?Apollo? care a dus primul om pe Luna.
About the calculations Earth-Moon you must be kidding.
Herman Oberth also started Hitler’s V1 and, by the way, hated Romania and wrote to German leadership to dump Romania as an ally …

? 1921 Aurel Persu - automobilul fara diferential, cu motor în spate (de forma ?picaturii de apa").
Could be but it does not work …

? 1921 Nicolae Paulescu - descopera insulina; pentru ca era un anti-mason virulent, Premiul Nobel l-au primit canadienii F. Banting si J.R.J. McLeod pentru aceasta descoperire?
It should already be clear that 1920 comes before 1921 but anyway … there were others also …
1908 German scientist, Georg Zuelzer develops the first injectible pancreatic extract to suppress glycosuria; however, there are extreme side effects to the treatment.
1010-1920 Frederick Madison Allen and Elliot P. Joslin emerge as the two leading diabetes specialists in the United States.
1913 Allen, after three years of diabetes study, publishes Studies Concerning Glycosuria and Diabetes, a book which is significant for the revolution in diabetes therapy that developed from it.
1919 Frederick Allen publishes Total Dietary Regulation in the Treatment of Diabetes, citing exhaustive case records of 76 of the 100 diabetes patients he observed, becomes the director of diabetes research at the Rockefeller Institute.
July 1, 1920 Dr. Banting opens his first office in London, Ontario. He receives his first patient on July 29th; his total earnings for his first month of work is $4.00.

? 1921 Stefan Procopiu - Fenomenul Procopiu (depolarizarea luminii).
May be …

? 1922 C.Levaditi si Sazevac - bismutul ca agent terapeutic împotriva sifilisului.
Syphilis was treated with mercury or other ineffective remedies until World War I (1914-1916), when effective treatments based on arsenic or bismuth were introduced. These were succeeded by antibiotics after World War II.

? 1925 Traian Vuia - generatorul de abur cu ardere în camera închisa si cu vaporizare instantanee.
Vuia was a great engineer, but when he tried to patent his airplane the Arsenal in Romania threw him out and he had to go to France to find forward looking people to fund his invention … Now we want him! La placinte innainte, la razboi innapoi …

? 1930 Elie Carafoli - avionul cu aripa joasa.
Zdenek Lhota - Czechoslovakia – 1925 - flew the BH-11 low-wing monoplane.
Albert W. (Al) Mooney - chief engineer at Alexander (1928-1929) was responsible for the Bullet, an advanced, high speed, low wing monoplane. With Mooney's patented retractable landing gear, it was a mild sensation and ahead of its time.

? 1933 Henri Coanda - aerodina lenticulara (farfuria zburatoare).
? 1938 Henri Coanda - efectul Coanda.
? 1938 Henri Coanda - discul volant.
The Coanda Effect is a real Romanian contribution to the progress of science. All good!!! But again in England, not in Romania. That should tell anyone something …

? 1952 Ia fiinta Institutul National de Geronto-Geriatrie ?Dr. Ana Aslan", primul institut de geriatrie din lume, model pentru tarile dezvoltate, prin asistenta clinica si cercetare. ?Ana Aslan? are, anual, mii de pacienti.
A big lie …and a lot of word of mouth phony advertising …

Exagerarea contributiei noastre la motorul societatii umane ii face pe unii romani sa creada ca, de buni ce suntem, n-avem nimic de schimbat, iar ceilalti sa ne pupe ...

Sarcina celor ce publca e sa corecteze asta.

Dan Manoliu

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